SKUHRAVA, M., BLASCO-ZUMETA, J., SKUHRAVY, V., 1993. Gall midges (Diptera, Cenidomyiidae) of Aragon. A review of species found in the period 1890-1990 with new records for the Monegros region. ZAPATERI, Revta. aragon. ent., 3: 27-36.

 

GALL MIDGES (DIPTERA, CECIDOMYIIDAE) OF ARAGON (SPAIN). A REVIEW OF SPECIES FOUND IN THE PERIOD 1890-1990 WITH NEW RECORDS FOR THE MONEGROS REGION

Marcela Skuhravá, Javier Blasco-Zumeta & Václav Skuhravy

Abstract: In the period 1890-1990 17 gall midge species were recorded from Aragon. In 1991-93, 11 gall midge species were found in the Monegros area, of which five species are new for the fauna of the Iberian Peninsula.

Key words: Cecidomyiidae, Aragon, Monegros

Resumen: En el periodo 1890-1990 se citan 17 especies de cecidómidos para Aragón. Durante el trienio 1991-93 en la Comarca de Monegros se colectan agallas pertenecientes a 11 especies, de las cuales cinco son nuevas para la fauna de la Península Ibérica.

Palabras clave: Cecidomyiidae, Aragón, Monegros

INTRODUCTION

Gall midges are small flies, usually only 0,5-3 mm long, whose larvae develop in various plant organs and tissues causing tumours, called galls (phytophagous gall midges), or attack mites, coccids, aphids and other arthropods (zoophagous gall midges), or develop in colonies of rusts, moulds, or in larger fungi (mycophagous gall midges) (SKUHRAVÁ ET AL., 1984a).

In the Palaeartic Region about 2,200 gall midge species have been described so far (SKUHRAVÁ, 1986). The majority of these species are known from the central European countries, where intensive research has been conducted during the 19th and 20th centuries. For example, about 600 species are known from France, a similar number from Germany, 360 from Poland and Austria and 500 species from the Czech Republic.

No systematic investigation of the gall midge fauna has been carried out so far in the large (504.782 km2) territory of Spain . About 130 gall midge species have been found here by researchers (a review will be presented in a separate paper). More than 65 gall midge species were found in Galicia, north-western Spain, by the Portuguese researcher J.S. TAVARES (1904). Galls of other gall midge species were found in various parts of Spain, viz. at Zumárraga in northern Spain, in Aragon and Andalusia, all by TAVARES (1916-1931), and in Catalonia by the Italian entomologist TROTTER (1902).

The gall midge species known from Aragon were collected by L. Navás, who lived and worked in Zaragoza, and sent galls to Tavares for determination. Only in the fifties (ALFARO, 1955) appeared studies on species connected with plant pathology. Just 22 gall midge species have been recorded from Aragon since the end of the 19th century. Galls were found in several localities: at the beginning of the 20th century in the suburbs of Zaragoza, later in several localities in Huesca province and in Pina de Ebro (Zaragoza province).

The nomenclature of host plant species is based on TUTIN ET AL. (1964-80); The nomenclature of gall midge species on SKUHRAVÁ (1986).

LIST OF THE GALL MIDGE SPECIES FOUND IN ARAGON IN THE PERIOD 1890-1990

Asphondylia conglomerata Asphondylia conglomerata Stefani, 1900

The larvae cause large galls on Atriplex halimus L. (Chenopodiaceae). Locality: Zaragoza (TAVARES, 1931). Distribution: Italy (Sicily). A Mediterranean species.

Contarinia camphorosmae Contarinia camphorosmae (Tavares, 1920)

The larvae produce galls on Camphorosma monspeliaca L. (Chenopodiaceae). Locality: Zaragoza. This species is known only from the type locality.

Dasineura medicaginis Dasineura medicaginis (Bremi, 1847)

The larvae develop in bud galls on Medicago sativa L. and M. falcata L. (Leguminosae). Locality: Zaragoza (TAVARES, 1931). Distribution: a common European species.

Dictyomyia navasiana Dictyomyia navasiana Tavares, 1919

The larvae produce galls on the stems of Santolina chamaecyparissus L. (Compositae). Locality: Zaragoza (TAVARES, 1918, 1920). Distribution: northern Africa (Morocco and Algeria). A South-European and North-African species.

Dictyomyia salsolae Dictyomyia salsolae Tavares, 1924

Only one female was caught, on Salsola vermiculata L. (Chenopodiaceae). Locality: Zaragoza. The species is known only from the type locality.

Mayetiola destructor Mayetiola destructor (Say, 1817)

(Syn. M. mimeuri Mesnil, 1934)

The white larvae develop on various cereals and also weed grasses under the leaf-sheaths at the base of the leaves or just above and cause here swellings of various shape. This species, also called the Hessian Fly, is periodically a serious pest of cereals on various parts of Europe, Asia, Northern Africa, North America and New Zealand (BARNES, 1956; SKUHRAVÁ ET AL., 1984b). In the years 1943-1944 and 1951-1953 serious damage was ascertained in several provinces of Spain and also in the Monegros area (ALFARO, 1955) where at present it constitutes the main pest of cereals (CAMBRA & GIMENO, 1988). This species is currently cosmopolitan.

Misospatha salsolae Misospatha salsolae Tavares, 1924

Females were bred from galls on Salsola vermiculata L. (Chenopodiaceae). Locality: Zaragoza. Known only from the type locality.

Rhopalomyia hispanica Rhopalomyia hispanica Tavares, 1904

The larvae develop in galls on Artemisia herba-alba Asso (Compositae). Locality: Sierra de Guara (Huesca province). This species is known only from Aragon.

Rhopalomyia navasi Rhopalomyia navasi Tavares, 1904

The larvae produce large galls on the stems of Artemisia herba-alba Asso (Compositae). Locality: Sierra de Guara (Huesca province) (TAVARES, 1904). Distribution: Roumania, northern Africa (Algeria, Lybia, Tunisia). A South-European and North-African species.

Rhopalomyia santolinae Rhopalomyia santolinae Tavares, 1902

The larvae cause galls on Santolina chamaecyparissus L., S. rosmarinifolia and S. vulgaris Boiss. (Compositae). Locality: Zaragoza (TAVARES, 1919). Distribution: Portugal. A South-western European species.

Rhopalomyia setubalensis Rhopalomyia setubalensis Tavares, 1902

The larvae produce galls on Santolina rosmarinifolia L. (Compositae). Locality: Zaragoza (TAVARES, 1902). Distribution: Portugal (Setubal), northern Africa (Algeria). A South-European and North-African species.

Rhopalomyia tavaresi Rhopalomyia tavaresi Gagné, 1975

(as a new name for Eudictyomyia artemisiae Tavares, 1920, preocc.)

Inquilines in galls on Artemisia herba-alba Asso (Compositae). Locality: María de Huerva (Zaragoza province) (TAVARES,1920). A South-western European species.

Rhopalomyia tubifex (Bouché, 1847)

Larvae in galls on the stems of Artemisia campestre L. (Compositae). Locality: El Frago (Zaragoza province) (TAVARES, 1922). Distribution: Europe, northern Africa (Algeria, Lybia, Tunisia). A European and North-African species.

Stefaniella trinacriae Stefaniella trinacriae Stefani, 1900

The larvae produce galls on the stems of Atriplex halimus L. (Chenopodiaceae). Locality: Zaragoza (TAVARES, 1931). Distribution: Italy (Sicily), northern Africa (Tunisia, Algeria). A South-European and North-African species.

Stefaniola bilobata Stefaniola bilobata (Kieffer, 1913)

The larvae live in bud galls on Salsola vermiculata L. (Chenopodiaceae). Locality: Quinta del Salvador (Zaragoza province) (Navás leg.)(MÖNH, 1971). Distribution: northern Africa (Algeria and Morocco). A South-European and North-African species.

Stefaniola parva Stefaniola parva (Tavares, 1919)

The larvae are inquilines in galls of Stefaniola salsolae. Locality: Zaragoza. A species known only from the type locality.

Stefaniola salsolae Stefaniola salsolae (Tavares, 1904)

The larvae produce galls on Salsola vermiculata L. (Chenopodiaceae). Locality: Pino (Zaragoza province) (Navás leg.); Huesca (MÖHN, 1971). Distribution: Portugal. A South-western European species.

 

RESEARCH IN THE MONEGROS REGION. DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA

An intensive inventory of the taxa associated with Juniperus thurifera L. forests has been taking place in the Monegros region since 1990 as a means of evaluating its natural values in order to campaign for legal protection for the area.

This work, as far as cecidomyid galls are concerned, completes that carried out in the first half of the century by Longinos Navás in the so-called "Aragonese steppe", in the middle of the Central Ebro Valley. This area's extreme climatic conditions have produced a vegetation similar to that of the North-African steppes (BRAUN-BLANQUET & O, BOLOS, 1957). OCHOA (1982) summarises its climate as follows: large annual range of minimum and maximum temperatures, which go from -10ºC to above 40ºC; frequent Spring frosts; prevailing winds from the NW and the SE (cold and warm, respectively), both with great desiccating power; low annual rainfall (200-400 mm); water deficit over 300 mm.

These climatic conditions (fig. 1) go hand in hand with a climax vegetation of Juniperus thurifera L. forests of the Juniperetum phoeniceo-thuriferae (Br.-Bl.& O.Bolós) Rivas-Martínez community (RIVAS-MARTINEZ, 1987). It is a species-poor plant community characterised by the presence of Juniperus thurifera L., Rhamnus lycioides L., Ephedra nebrodensis Tineo ex Guss. and Asparagus acutifolius L.. It is a clear forest or a steppe with trees, and is associated with various shrub layers whose composition depends on microclimatic (altitude, exposure and soil) conditions (BRAUN-BLANQUET & 0. BOLOS, 1957). The main shrub layer communities are the following: Lygeo sparti-Stipetum lagascae Br.-Bl.& O.Bolós and Agropyro cristati-Lygeetum sparti Br.-Bl.& O.Bolós, steppe grasslands with perennial species on the deep soils found on not very steep hillsides and the foot of the hills; Ononidetum tridentatae Br.-Bl.& O.Bolós, dense, vigorous scrub mostly found on gentle sunny hillsides, which indicates the presence of a deep layer of gypsum; Salsolo vermiculatae-Artemisietum albae Br.-Bl.& O.Bolós, a community of nitrophilous species found in abandoned fields and places where organic matter accumulates (mainly as a result of the presence of sheep); Helianthemetum squamati Br.-Bl.& O.Bolós, a community of low, stunted shrubs and a very important lichen component which is found on very eroded hilltops.

The Monegros locality (fig. 2) is the area known as "Retuerta de Pina" (Pina de Ebro, Zaragoza, UTM grid square 30T YL29). It is the last well-preserved Juniperus thurifera L. forest in the Monegros region.

 

REVIEW OF THE GALL MIDGE SPECIES FOUND IN THE MONEGROS REGION IN 1991-1993

Baldratia suaedae Baldratia suaedae Möhn, 1969

The larvae cause small ovoid swellings on the shoots of Suaeda vera J.F. Gmelin (Chenopodiaceae) each with one chamber inside. It is a Mediterranean species known from Israel, Algeria and Canary Islands. In the Monegros area it is a common species. It's the first record for the Iberian Peninsula.

Bayeria thymicola Bayeria thymicola (Kieffer, 1888)

The larvae produce rosette galls on Thymus vulgaris L. (Labiatae). This species occurs in western and central Europe and in North Africa (Morocco, Tunisia). It is a new species for the Spanish fauna. The gall is uncommon.

Dictyomyia navasiana Dictyomyia navasiana Tavares, 1919

This species, described from Zaragoza in 1919, has survived here, as is documented by the finding of its galls, which are common but local.

Oligotrophus Oligotrophus sp.1

Large galls, up to 22 mm long, on Juniperus thurifera L. (Cupressaceae), caused by an undescribed gall midge species. HOUARD (1918) published the first description of the shape of these galls. He found them also in northern Africa (Morocco), in the Central Atlas, at an altitude of 2,000 m, later also in Algeria (HOUARD, 1921). In the Monegros area the galls of this species are very abundant, with most trees parasitised. It is a new species for the European fauna.

Oligotrophus Oligotrophus sp.2

Small galls, about 7 mm. long, on Juniperus thurifera L. (Cupressaceae). HOUARD (1918) was the first to describe the galls, which he had found in northern Africa together with the galls of the previous species. These galls are scarce. It is a new record for the European fauna.

 

Rhopalomyia hispanica Rhopalomyia hispanica Tavares, 1904

The larvae produce small bud galls on the shoots of Artemisia herba-alba Asso (Compositae). The galls were found and this species was described by TAVARES (1904) from Sierra de Guara (Huesca). They have been found only in the type locality and in Monegros area where actually they are uncommon.

Rhopalomyia navasi Rhopalomyia navasi Tavares, 1904

The larvae produce large conspicuous galls, up to 20 mm in diameter, on the stems of Artemisia herba-alba Asso (Compositae). This gall is now abundant in the Monegros area. HOUARD (1913, 1921-23) mentioned it as the most common species in northern Africa.

Rhopalomyia producticeps Rhopalomyia producticeps Kieffer, 1912

The solitary larvae cause tubular galls, up to 9 mm long, on the stems of Artemisia herba-alba Asso. This species was described by KIEFFER (1912) on the basis of galls found in northern Africa, in Algeria. The finding of galls in the Monegros is the first record of Rh. producticeps from Europe and also a new species for the Spanish fauna. In the Monegros the galls of Rh. producticeps are rare at the moment.

Stefaniella trinacriae Stefaniella trinacriae Stefani, 1900

The larvae cause swellings on the stems of Atriplex halimus L. This species was described on the basis of galls found in Italy (Sicily). Galls have also been collected in northern Africa (Algeria and Tunisia). The first Spanish record is due to TAVARES (1918), who found galls at Pino (Zaragoza province) and later in Zaragoza (TAVARES, 1931). In the Monegros the galls are now common.

Stefaniola bilobata Stefaniola bilobata (Kieffer, 1913)

The larvae produce elongated galls on the buds of Salsola vermiculata L.. In the Monegros the galls are common at present.

Stefaniola salsolae Stefaniola salsolae (Tavares, 1904)

The larvae cause rosette bud galls on the stems of Salsola vermiculata L.. The galls are currently very abundant.

CONCLUSION

Up till now 22 gall midge species have been found in Aragon. One of them, Mayetiola destructor, is a cosmopolitan species; two species, Dasineura medicaginis and Rhopalomyia tubifex, belong to a group of European species widespread in Europe; four species, Asphondylia conglomerata, Rhopalomyia santolinae, Rh. tavaresi and Stefaniola salsolae, may be considered as south-western European species; ten species, Baldratia suaedae, Bayeria thymicola, Dictyomyia navasiana, D. setubalensis, Ologotrophus sp.1, Oligotrophus sp.2, Rhopalomyia navasi, R. producticeps, Stefaniella trinacriae and Stefaniola bilobata, are Mediterranean species which also occur in northern Africa; five species, Contarinia camphorosmae, Dictyomyia salsolae, Micospatha salsolae, Rhopalomyia hispanica and Stefaniola parva have been found only at their Aragonese locality and, therefore, may be designated as endemic species for this area.

These data confirm the importance of the Aragonese steppe as a speciation centre for endemic species and its "African character", both a result of the long history of its plant and animal communities (BRAUN-BLANQUET & BOLOS, 1957; WALTER, 1956; TERRADAS, 1986; BLANCHÉ & MOLERO, 1986; PEDROCCHI & SANZ, 1991). We hope the Aragonese government will eventually come to understand the need to preserve these ancient ecosystems, true relics of the Miocene, for future generations.

SUMARIO

La fauna de Dípteros Cecidómidos no ha sido investigada sistemáticamente en España de donde se conocen únicamente unas 130 especies.

Las especies de cecidómidos conocidas de Aragón se deben al sacerdote jesuita P. Longinos Navás, quien a principios de siglo colectó agallas en los alrededores de Zaragoza y las remitió al investigador portugués J.S. Tavares para su estudio. Desde entonces, y hasta hoy, sólo A. Alfaro realiza en los años 50 y desde Aula Dei trabajos sobre el género Mayetiola dado su interés en patología vegetal.

Para el periodo 1890-1990, se citan pues en Aragón 17 especies de cecidómidos produciendo agallas en los siguientes taxones vegetales: sobre Artemisia campestre: Rhopalomyia tubifex; sobre Artemisia herba-alba: Rhopalomyia hispanica, Rh. navasi y Rh. tavaresi; sobre Atriplex halimus: Asphondylia conglomerata y Stefaniella trinacriae; sobre Camphorosma monspeliaca: Contarinia camphorosmae; sobre Gramineae (principalmente trigo y cebada): Mayetiola destructor; sobre Medicago sativa: Dasineura medicaginis; sobre Salsola vermiculata: Dictyomyia salsolae, Misospatha salsolae, Stefaniola bilobata, S. parva y S. salsolae; sobre Santolina sp.: Dictyomyia navasiana, Rhopalomyia santolinae y Rh. setubalensis.

Desde el año 1990 se está llevando a cabo un inventario exhaustivo de la biocenosis asociada a las comunidades de Juniperus thurifera L. de Monegros con el fin de evaluar sus valores ecológicos. Para ello se ha elegido el paraje conocido como "Retuerta de Pina" (Pina de Ebro, Zaragoza) habiéndose colectado un total de 11 tipos diferentes de agallas producidas por cecidómidos: además de D. navasiana, Rh. hispanica, Rh. navasi, S. trinacriae, S. bilobata y S. salsolae, aparecen sobre Artemisia herba-alba: Rhopalomyia producticeps; sobre Juniperus thurifera: Oligotrophus sp.1 y Oligotrophus sp.2; sobre Suaeda vera: Baldratia suaedae; sobre Thymus vulgaris: Bayeria thymicola. Estas últimas 5 especies son nuevas citas para la Península Ibérica, siendo tres de ellas (Oligotrophus sp.1, Oligotrophus sp.2 y Rh. producticeps) nuevas para la fauna europea.

Respecto a la zoocorología de las 22 especies de cecidómidos citados hasta la fecha en Aragón, una especie, Mayetiola destructor, tiene carácter cosmopolita; dos especies, Dasineura medicaginis y Rhopalomyia tubifex, están ampliamente distribuidas por Europa; cuatro especies, Asphondylia conglomerata, Rhopalomyia santolinae, Rh. tavaresi y Stefaniola salsolae, son especies normediterráneo-occidentales; diez especies, Baldratia suaedae, Bayeria thymicola, Dictyomyia navasiana, D. setubalensis, Ologotrophus sp.1, Oligotrophus sp.2, Rhopalomyia navasi, R. producticeps, Stefaniella trinacriae y Stefaniola bilobata, son especies mediterráneas bien representadas en el norte de Africa; cinco especies, Contarinia camphorosmae, Dictyomyia salsolae, Micospatha salsolae, Rhopalomyia hispanica y Stefaniola parva han sido encontradas sólamente en su localidad tipo de Zaragoza y Huesca y, por lo tanto, pueden ser consideradas como endémicas de las zonas áridas aragonesas.

Estos datos confirman la importancia de la estepa aragonesa como un centro de primer orden de especiación de endemismos y su carácter de "paisaje africano" como resultado de su antigüedad.

La finalidad última de este trabajo es contribuir al conocimiento de la naturaleza de Aragón como la mejor forma de sensibilizar a las autoridades aragonesas en la necesidad de preservar para las generaciones futuras unos paisajes que son verdaderas reliquias del Mioceno.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Our thanks to Leopoldo Castro, for checking the English version.

 

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Marcela Skuhravá
Vàclav Skuhravy
Javier Blasco-Zumeta

Institut of Entomology C/ Hispanidad, 8
Academy of Sciences 50750-PINA DE EBRO (ZARAGOZA)
Branisovská 31 ESPAÑA
370 05 Ceské Budejovice
CZECH REPUBLIK

 

Fig. 1. Ombroclimatic chart of the Bujaraloz station, 12 km away from the

Retuerta de Pina site.

Fig. 2. Position of the site in the Monegros region, Aragon (Spain).

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